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marriage is still a widespread practice in India, even though it was prohibited
in 2006 with The Prohibition of Child Marriage Act.
One of the main reasons why child marriage still occurs is that it is a social
costume and therefore it is difficult to eradicate with a law. Another
important reason is that other alternatives such as education are not easily
accessible for children from marginal groups. A study has been carried out in
New Delhi in 2008 regarding dropout cases in slum schools. It has been found
that 57,6% of the children who dropped out school (in most cases in Grade IX) were girls. The reasons of the
drop-out are often related mainly to the financial constraint of the family.
Families from marginal groups find difficult to pay school fees and other
costs. In addition, the distance and not-so-safe road to reach
the school has been addressed as one of the main reasons that leads girls to
drop out. In fact, secondary schools are usually far away and girls claimed
that they do not feel safe on the way to school and even that they fear to be
is why many parents in India decide to marry their daughters when they are
still children because they believe there is no other good option for a girl
rather than marriage.
The government is trying to subsidize
parents to keep their daughter in schools, as they are still children with a development scheme called Sukanya Samriddhi launched in January 2015. Parents can open an
account for their daughter until she is no more than 10 years old. The minimum amount
that has to be deposited every year is of Rs. 1000 and can be maximum Rs.
1,500,000 and the interest rate is 9.2 per cent. Money must be deposited for 14
years and the maturity duration is reached when the girl turns 21. It follows
that after 14 years it is no more necessary to deposit any money but the
interest will keep increasing for 7 more years.
Parents should be more
likely to postpone the marriage after the girl has reached the age for the
maturity of the account because they can use that amount of money to pay the
marriage. Indeed, it is for economic reasons that lot of weddings take place
when the girl is still a child; since weddings are expensive ceremonies and the dowry amount is
low if the bride is still young, families tend to marry their younger children
together with other older siblings’ weddings. Therefore, Sukanya Samriddhi scheme
should deter parents from marry their daughters when they are still children.
In this way, girls will remain in school longer and have a better education,
which will give them the opportunity to find a better job.
Moreover, the scheme allows
a partial amount (50 per cent) for withdrawal if the girl has turned 18, only
if she intends to marry or for paying further education. This can help families
to pay the tuition for their daughters’ higher education if they cannot afford
found out that few people seem to be aware of this government scheme at the
moment and that is why Heeals is going to explain it
during the workshop about WASH, MHM and Child Marriage that will take place this
month in some slum schools. Our aim is to help girl children remain in school, and
to increase awareness of government programmesthat they can take advantage of.
Marriage should not take
place when a girl is still a child and should not be a solution to keep her
As stated by
the World Health Organization “anaemia is a condition in which the number of
red blood cells or their oxygen-carrying capacity is insufficient to meet
physiologic needs, which vary by age, sex, altitude, smoking, and pregnancy
deficiency is one the most common causes of this disease, since it is
fundamental in the formation of haemoglobin that composes blood red cells and
which is responsible of carry the oxygen through the body. It is no accident
that iron-deficiency anaemia is the most common type of this health issue. Moreover,
it can affect the immune system, endangering the body defences, by exposing them
to the risk of contracting infections.
deficiency is usually caused by a lack of the substance in the diet, which is
contained in some veg and non veg food, such as: meat and fish, eggs, cereals
fortified in iron, legumes and leafy vegetables such as spinach, legumes and
fruits. Anaemia causes fatigue and weakness, shortness of breath, pink or red
urine, hair loss and brittle nails, as well as depression, dizziness and headache.
In severe cases of the disease, it may also lead to heart and lungs
considered as a national calamity in India, since more than half of Indian
women and ¾ children suffer from it. Women with heavy periods, or pregnant are
more susceptible to contract it. Moreover, during pregnancies, anaemia
increases the risks of complications of the mother and the foetus, both during
and after birth and can also lead to postnatal depression. A study carried out in two
rural villages in Karnataka (India), between 401 children aged 12 to 23 months
old, showed that 75,3% were anaemic, which was directly associated with energy
intake from food and especially from breastfeeding. The principal factors to
blame are the diet and the food insecurity (both quality and quantity), which
is directly linked to maternal anaemia, poverty and cultural beliefs. Indeed,
many Indian women during periods avoid certain kind of foods for religious
conclusion, anaemia has to be linked to MHM and also to child marriage and
gender equality, because very young women have less decision making powers,
which makes them more vulnerable concerning nutritional intake. Usually,
especially in rural areas, women and girls tend to eat after having served food
to all the other male members of the family, which make them eat leftovers and
usually smaller portions of food.
Anaemia is a
very important issue that need to be considered as a real disease and solved. In
order to prevent it, we should all, women and men, adults and children, have a
regular diet, balanced and rich in iron.
On 2nd October 2014
Prime Minister Narendra Modi launched the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, or Clean India
Mission. The aim is to eliminate the practice of open defecation by October
2019 by constructing 12 million toilets in rural India.
sanitation facilities is not enough to stop open defecation. As well as the
providing of sanitation facilities, it must be ensured that they are in working
condition, they must be kept clean and maintained properly. Dirty facilities
become unused facilities. That is why creating awareness and understanding
among people of the importance of the use and maintenance of sanitation
facilities is fundamental. If people do not understand the importance of
having, using and maintaining clean toilets, there will not be a behaviour
change. Maintenance and use of facilities are great challenges.
Let us take the
example of a public school of a village in Western Uttar Pradesh where recently
new sanitation facilities have been built. Toilets are separated for boys and
girls and seem to be functioning. However, taking a closer look at the inside
of the sanitation facilities it is impossible not to notice that the hygienic
conditions of the toilets are not appropriate; the floor is wet and dirty and
there is no disposal for used sanitary napkins. That is when I have learnt that
the people of the village in charge of the cleaning do not carry out properly
their work and that the dust bin has been stolen from the toilets.
If toilets are not
clean, there is a higher risk of infections and
diseases. It can also happen that children
would not be inclined to use them. As for girls going to school in their
period, it is fundamental to have a place for the disposal of used sanitary
napkins to ensure they can change them regularly and without feeling
uncomfortable. Toilets need to be cleaned and provided with the
essential tools. Attendance of children, particularly girls, improves when they
can use good sanitation facilities. Children need to be taught to use, clean
and maintain facilities. In addition, people that are in charge of cleaning
have to understand the importance and necessity of proper hygienic conditions
Creating awareness of
the issue is the way to ensure the success of the Clean India Mission. There is
no possibility for a behaviour change without it. Especially in the rural area,
where is concentrated the 68.85% of the population, is important to make a
change since 61% of the population still defecates outside, against the 10% living
in the urban area. Open defecation is still practiced even if toilets has been
provided. To solve this issue, awareness must be created among all the
community. Maintaining clean sanitation facilities is a responsibility of every
citizen and it requires the participation of everyone. Behaviour change and
communication programmes are much more important than building toilets.
NGOs like Heeals are a
fundamental part in the mobilisation and support of local groups. Organising
workshops and other educational activities are an effective way to educate
children and to include families and members of the community in the awareness
process. They can help to develop shared norms in the community and to
understand and support hygiene improvement in schools. Awareness raising and
promotion in the community is the key for a successful result.
INDIA 2016, A Reference Annual, Compiled by New Media
Wing, Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting,
Government of India, 2016.
FIRST EXPERIENCE IN A RURAL VILLAGE IN WESTERN UTTAR PRADESH
ARE THEY DRINKING SAFE WATER?
First day of internship at Heeals (NGO, Gurgaon, India), first day in rural India. The three and a half hours car trip doesn’t reflect at all the small distance on the map, from Gurgaon to Greater Noida. We just passed through a congested and noisy Monday morning Delhi, and after a while the landscape changes… Just passed through a tollbooth like if it was a time machine, which has zapped us in a new dimension, where nature and silence permeate everything. Lush green fields replacing polluted and dirty streets, no more cars, just shouting children, cows and sometimes a bullock cart. How could it be possible?
We arrive at the village school and a group of 30 children, from 6 to 13 years old appears at the window grates, shy but still very excited. They are shouting “mam” (madam), trying to catch our attention, they want to know who we are and where are we coming from. First worried about how to approach to them, mostly for the linguistic barrier, we start to communicate with them thanks to our tutor and colleague Hindi translation and trough hand gestures. But the best way to break the ice is to play with them, and through our smiles, it is the easiest way to communicate with each other!
A couple of girls want us to see the new toilets that have been recently built outside the school. One proud and brave student takes me by the hand to take a look of the restrooms. They are pretty new, but not clean and there are no sinks to clean their hand or to drink some water.
Next to the school there is a new hand pump, which has been built just 2/3 months ago, and which provides water for all purposes: to wash their hands, to clean toilets, but even used as drinking water. Having access to water near to the school already seems like a huge step for them, since before they had to take it from the village temple, but still this water has not been tested and is not safe to drink.
On the opposite field from the school, very close by, approximately 12 meters from the hand pump, there is a polluted pond with stagnant green water and insects floating on the surface. It's no great stretch to imagine that it is the same water that is provided to the pupils trough the hand pump, since the groundwater are more likely to be contaminated by the pond.
Having access to safe drinking water should no more be seen as a service or as a commodity, but as a basic human right, that everyone should benefit from. The United Nations’ Human Right statement on right to water says “The human right to water entitles everyone to sufficient, safe, acceptable, physically accessible and affordable water for personal and domestic uses. An adequate amount of safe water is necessary to prevent death from dehydration, reduce the risk of water-related diseases and it is provided for consumption, cooking, personal and domestic hygienic requirements”.
Even though the access to improved sources of drinking water is increasing, still in 2008, 884 millions of people, especially from developing regions, were not able to have access to safe or unimproved-sources water. Moreover we should point out the disparities between urban and rural areas. Indeed while 94% of developing regions urban citizens have access to improved sources water, it is only 76% of rural population who can benefit from this basic need and the increase in the use of improved drinking-water sources is barely keeping with the massive city population growth.
In India the right to safe drinking water is part of the right to life, which is contained in Article 21 of the Constitution. The 10t Five Year Plan (2002-2007) tried to cover urban areas basic needs, efficient operation and equitable distribution of water. Unfortunately, even in spite of the importance given to drinking water improvement, still 480 million of Indian citizens at that time hadn’t got access to safe drinking water, and India was ranked 133rd among 180 countries in regards to poor water availability.
Governments and local authorities should take care about this actively and provide primary basic human needs, such as access to clean drinking water, clean toilets and infrastructures where children can play.
Source: UNICEF, World Health Organization, Progress on Sanitation and Drinking Water, 2010 update, p. 7.
YOJANA, WATER, September 2007, p. 10, “The India Water Portal”, Rohini Nilekani, Chairperson, Arghyam, Akshara Foundation (Bangalore), Pratham.
is known as the defecation capital of the world with 638 million people
defecating in the open. People have more mobile phones and easier access to
banks than toilets. More than half of the Indian population does not wash their
hands after defecation, making respiratory and gastrointestinal infections
major killers among children and adults alike.
% of girls’ schools do not have a functioning female toilet in India resulting
in a dropout rate of more than 40% after completing just year five.
23 % of girls drop out of school every year in India due to lack of menstrual
hygiene facilities including toilets.
toilets in rural India was one of the major promises Prime Minister Narendra
Modi made during his speech from the Red Fort ramparts in his first
Independence Day address on 15 August, 2014.
The government has since moved with alacrity, claiming to have
constructed around 3.36 crore countryside toilets across India under Modi’s
ambitious Swachh Bharat mission.
But a random assessment of the campaign shows that the ambitious
move is plagued by crippling problems that threaten to offset the hopes among
large swathes of population that seek hygienic
To gauge the programme’s success rate, Union Ministry of Drinking
Water and Sanitation — the nodal agency for rural mission for the cleanliness
campaign — engaged the National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) for an impact
Sources in the ministry said that one of the most common
complaints coming from states like Uttar Pradesh (UP) was the lack of acceptability and proper usage of
the toilets built in remote rural areas.
several toilets have been built in this area, villagers still prefer going out
into fields to attend nature’s call. At a few places, villagers have
dumped the toilets under piles of husk. In some villages where they have
constructed toilets, there is no proper waste management…so they are frustrated
with the idea,” said an official in UP government, based in Badaun district, on
the condition of anonymity.
A villager in Bareilly district of UP admitted that he felt
“suffocated inside an enclosed toilet” and couldn’t bring himself to excrete
until he went to an open field.
At least 50 per cent of the Indian population doesn’t have access
to toilets. If we go to villages randomly, we will find one or the other
The reason is that sanitation is primarily a behavioural issue, to be undertaken by people themselves for their
own good. The role of government is only to facilitate this positive change by
providing incentives and assisting people. The SBM-G has a clear focus on
Officials said the realisation by a person or community of the
need to stop open defecation, and therefore take steps to construct and use
toilets, is more important than a supply-driven approach.
The Centre has also said that state governments have the flexibility
to provide higher incentive for household toilets constructed by sources other
The construction of toilets is a major focal area for the Swachh
Bharat programme, which aims to make India “open defecation-free” by
It aims at constructing 12
crore toilets in rural India by October 2019 at a projected cost of Rs 1.96
NGOs are also working as a helping hand in Swachh Bharat Mission like Heeals is
creatingawareness at grass root level, national
and international level about sanitation, menstrual hygiene, toilets and unsafe
drinking water, and its effect on female education and health. Alongside awareness
campaigns, HEEALS organization also ensures that communities are equipped to
tackle these issues, by providing toilets in the areas most at risk, and by
providing things such as water purification tablets, water tanks, soap and
sanitary towels for young girls.
a single organization can't do this alone and governmentfunding is far from easy to
each one of us have to put the efforts to make swachh bharat mission
successful. Together we can reach every mother, father, and child in our local
Let’s hope that the aim of
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan will be achieved very soon.
New Delhi, Jan 31 () Stating that lack of access to sanitation facilities puts disproportionate burden on women and girls, including threat to life besides nutritional risks, the Economic Survey today pitched for ensuring toilets in each household.
The pre-Budget Economic Survey 2016-17, tabled in Parliament today, also said to ensure safe and adequate sanitation, water security and hygiene -- the objectives of Swachh Bharat -- as part of a broader fundamental right to privacy for women is becoming a serious policy issue.
Stating that there is 'disproportionate burden' on women in households without toilets, the survey said it take several forms such as "threat to life and safety while going out for open defecation, reduction in food and water intake practices to minimise the need to exit the home to use toilets, polluted water leading to women and children dying from childbirth- related infections, and a host of other impacts".
Stressing the need for women's personal hygiene, the survey added it "is therefore important not just for better health outcomes but also for the intrinsic value in conferring freedom that comes from having control over their bodies, a kind of basic right to physical privacy".
It, however, said there is an improvement from 2011 when the Census reported that more than half of the country's population defecated in the open. More recent data shows about 60 per cent of rural households and 89 per cent of urban households have access to toilets.
Citing a recent study, the survey said in households with toilets, 62 per cent women reported use of the toilet "always", while only 52 per cent men reported exclusive usage in such households.
In rural households, the proportion of regular use by women was 56 per cent as against 43 per cent by men. In urban households, 75 per cent of women reported exclusive usage as compared with 72 per cent by men.
"What this pattern of usage suggests is that women and girl-children could take a key leadership role to play in Swachh Bharat's objective of creating defecation free communities, by nudging men and boys of the household to change their own defecation behaviors," it added.
The survey said recognising the positive behavioral patterns that women demonstrate upon obtaining access to sanitation services is critical.
"Equally, when these services are denied, they face considerable insecurity and nutritional risks. For this reason, ensuring safe and adequate sanitation, water security and hygiene the objectives of Swachh Bharat as part of a broader fundamental right to privacy is becoming a serious policy issue," it said.
Wishing Everyone A Very Happy 68th Republic Day. :)
The father of Indian constitution Dr.B.R Ambedkar had given us a greatest constitution which describe in the preamble of our constitution. WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN, SOCIALIST, SECULAR ,DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens. JUSTICE, social, economic and political; LIBERTY of thought , expression, belief, faith and worship; EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation; It was adopted on 26 November 1949 by the Constituent Assembly and came into effect on 26th January, 1950. Jai Hind !